Kampala, Uganda’da Hava Kirliliği

Ancak kısa süre içinde somut bir adım atılmazsa, Afrika'nın İncisi'nin başkenti bundan birkaç yıl sonra neredeyse yaşanamaz hale gelecek.

Story by Anna Adima. Translated by by Büşra Çavundur
Uganda, Eastern Africa
Published on Saturday, 2. May 2020

Reading time: 2 minutes

This story is also available in GB de es it



Şu anda doktora saha çalışmam için bulunduğum memleketim Kampala, Uganda'da yaşayan ve gezen çoğu insan gibi şehrin hava kirliliğini oluşturan toz, egzoz dumanı ve sanayi dumanının toksik bileşimini günlük olarak soluyorum. 

Kampala, Uganda'nın başkenti ve yıllık %4,03'lük büyüme oranı ve 1,6 milyonluk nüfusuyla dünyanın en hızlı büyüyen şehirlerinden biridir. Büyüyen sanayi ve kentleşmeye, artan araç sayısı eşlik ediyor: Araba, otobüs, kamyon ve motosiklet taksi dahil yaklaşık 50.000 araç Kampala caddelerinde dolaşıyor. Bu araçların çoğu eski olup çevre dostu olarak tasarlanmamıştır ve tehlikeli sanayi atıklarıyla birlikte şehrin hava kirliliği krizine katkıda bulunur. Diğer zehirli atıklar, atık yakımından ve yemek pişirmek için odun veya kömür sobalarının kullanıldığı evlerdeki iç hava kirliliğinden de kaynaklanmaktadır.

Kampala, Afrika'daki en kirli ikinci şehirdir (Kano, Nijerya’yı takip eder): PM 2,5 (2.5 mikron büyüklüğünde ve tüm hava kirleticileri arasında en tehlikeli etkiye sahip partikül madde kirleticileri) kirliliğinin 2018'deki 40,8 µg/m³ ortalamasıyla Dünya Sağlık Örgütü'nün tavsiye ettiği 10 µg/m³ hedefinin oldukça üzerindedir. Bu farklı hava kirliliği biçimlerinin etkileri, Kampala genelinde günlük olarak hissedilebilir. Kendimi şehrin yedi tepesinden birinde daha yüksek bir yerde bulduğumda, Kampala'yı boğan kalın bir duman bulutu görünüyor. Şehrin iç karartıcı trafiğinde mahsur kalmak, çevredeki araçların ürettiği ölümcül egzoz dumanlarına maruz kalmak demektir. Açık alanda spor yapmak tehlikeli olabilir: Yürürken, bisiklet sürerken veya koşarken en büyük risk eskiden bir aracın size çarpması veya saldırıya uğramaktı; şimdi bunlara kirli hava solumanın tehlikeleri de eklendi (ve bu nedenle ben, burada iç mekanda egzersiz yapmayı tercih ediyorum). Şaşırtıcı olmayan bir şekilde, 2017'de Uganda'da hava kirliliğine bağlı ölümlerin sayısı 13.000 iken solunum yollarına bağlı sorunlar burada da artıyor.

Yerel haberler, Kampala ve Uganda'da hava kirliliğinin tehlikeleri konusunda farkındalık yaratmaya çalışıyor. Akademisyenler ve Kampala Capital City Authority halkı soludukları zehirle ilgili eğitmek için çaba gösterirken çeşitli haber kaynakları harekete geçme çağrısı yapıyor. 2018'de Uganda hükümeti, ülkedeki kirliliği azaltmak amacıyla 15 yaşından büyük otomobillerin ithalatını yasaklayan bir yasa kabul etti ve beş yaşından büyük otomobile sahip olanların çevre vergisi ödemeleri gerekiyor.

Ama tüm bunlar hava kirliliğiyle mücadele için yeterli mi? Uganda'da yürümek ve toplu taşıma kullanmak, işçi sınıfıyla ilişkilendirildiğinden şehrin zenginleri tarafından genellikle küçümsenir. Toplu taşıma aynı zamanda en güvenli veya en güvenilir ulaşım aracı olmayabilir ve özellikle kadınlar toplu taşımada taciz ve saldırıya karşı daha savunmasızdır (Tanıdığım pek çok kadının bunu yaşamış olması üzücü). İki aşamalı bir değişim gerekiyor: toplu taşımayı daha güvenli, daha erişilebilir kılacak, kentsel alandaki marjinal bireyleri kapsayacak bir değişim ve toplu taşımanın yalnızca yoksulların rezervi olduğu zihniyetinde değişim.

Elbette bunlar çok büyük bir soruna sunulan küçük çözümler. Ancak kısa süre içinde somut bir adım atılmazsa, Afrika'nın İncisi'nin başkenti bundan birkaç yıl sonra neredeyse yaşanamaz hale gelecek.


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Anna Adima

Anna Adima

Of German-Ugandan heritage, Anna is a PhD student at the University of York in the UK, where she is researching East African History. She is particularly interested in women’s history, heritage preservation, and issues surrounding race and feminism. With stints in Mwanza, The Hague, Toulouse, London, and Nairobi – in between returning to her ‘passport countries’ – Anna is privileged to have called different places around the world home. When she is not covered in dust looking at old documents in historical archives, Anna enjoys drinking coffee, swimming, and can often be found curled up in her favourite spot on the couch reading a book. She tweets @anna_adima.

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