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坎帕拉,乌干达的空气污染非常严重

如果在不久的将来什么都不做,非洲之珠将在短短几十年内变得无法居住
Uganda, Eastern Africa

Story by Anna Adima. Translated by Javier Vidal Cano
Published on January 16, 2023.

This story is also available in GB ar de es fr it kr nl tr



我目前在坎帕拉完成我的博士研究,和许多其他住在这里的人一样,我每天吸入大量来自汽车尾气、灰尘和工厂的空气污染。

坎帕拉是乌干达的首都,并且是世界上发展最快的城市之一,年均增长率为 4.03%,人口大概 160 万。由于近年来经历的经济增长和城市化爆炸,城市的车辆数量增加(约 50,000 辆)。这些车辆包括汽车、公共汽车、卡车和摩托车。然而,这些车辆都是旧车型,不符合现代环保法规标准,再加上该市工厂产生的危险工业废物,加剧了该市的空气污染危机。其他重要的污染源是家庭,许多人仍然使用木炭和木材做饭。

坎帕拉是非洲第二污染最严重的城市(污染最严重的城市在尼日利亚)。其 PM 2.5(粒径为 2.5 微米的颗粒污染物,是所有空气污染物中对健康影响最大的)污染在 2018 年平均为 40.8 µg/m³,远高于世界卫生组织推荐的 10 µg/m³。这种空气污染对任何人都是显而易见的。每当我徒步到城市七山之一的山顶时,我都能看到笼罩着城市的浓雾。你经常发现自己陷入交通堵车,这意味着长时间暴露在周围车辆的致命废气中。因此,近来与呼吸和肺部相关的健康问题正在上升,到 2017 年乌干达因空气污染导致的死亡人数上升至 13,000 人,这可能并不奇怪。

由于这些原因,地方新闻台一直在努力提高人们对这个问题的认识。由于大众需求不断增长,政府也一直在积极努力遏制空气污染。2018 年,政府通过了一项禁止进口 15 年以上车型的法律,并且,5 年以上汽车的车主必须付出环境税。

但问题仍然存在,这些措施是否足够?虽然人们可以尝试乘坐更多的公共交通工具,但这会带来一些风险。首先,乘坐公共交通工具被上流社会看不起,而且公共交通工具非常缓慢且不可靠。然而,最严重的是乘坐交通工具是不安全的,尤其是对女性而言。乘坐公共交通工具使他们更容易受到攻击和性骚扰。我很遗憾地说,我认识的很多女性都经历过这种情况。政府需要采取两管齐下的方法:首先,政府必须让公共交通对女性和其他边缘化人群改善包容性和安全性,他们还必须尝试改变公共交通只为穷人服务的心态。

但必须说,这些只是解决一个非常大的问题的非常小的步骤。但是如果在不久的将来什么都不做,非洲之珠将在短短几十年内变得无法居住。


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Anna Adima

Anna Adima

Of German-Ugandan heritage, Anna is a PhD student at the University of York in the UK, where she is researching East African History. She is particularly interested in women’s history, heritage preservation, and issues surrounding race and feminism. With stints in Mwanza, The Hague, Toulouse, London, and Nairobi – in between returning to her ‘passport countries’ – Anna is privileged to have called different places around the world home. When she is not covered in dust looking at old documents in historical archives, Anna enjoys drinking coffee, swimming, and can often be found curled up in her favourite spot on the couch reading a book. She tweets @anna_adima.

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