我与水源、大雪和干旱

时不我待,吾需竭尽全力,保护生命之源
Iran, Western Asia

Story by Mani Nouri. Edited by Vivian Jieluan Chen. Translated by Jie Li
Published on January 26, 2020.

This story is also available in GB de it



我来自伊朗,最近刚从加拿大蒙特利尔一所大学获得硕士学位。冬天,蒙特利尔会下大雪。对我来说,下雪是既令我烦恼又令我怀念的事。雪有时候会下到半米深,上学的道路变得艰难。这时,我就会回忆起童年时期的事。我那时在伊朗首都德黑兰生活了很长时间。我想起了那些个奋斗过的夜晚,自己紧张地准备第二天的考试。我在屋内学习时望向窗外,外面突然雪花纷飞,就像小天使降临人间。我和其他学生一样,会守在电视机前,激动地等待新闻上播报:由于暴雪天气,学校不得不停课。

新一代学生现在从未经历过这些令人激动的夜晚,我对此感到惋惜。如今,德黑兰的学校在冬天依然会停课,但是这并不因为美丽的大雪而是因为雾霾。冬天的空气污染很严重,雾霾笼罩在德黑兰的摩天大楼之上,就像鬼魂出没。由于雾霾严重,要么空气毒性增强,要么交通流量缓慢,总之学校必须停课几天。

自从那时起,我就知道了下大雪不仅仅会让学生拥有更多的假期。更重要的是,下雪会带来人类生活的必需品:水。水源对伊朗的农业来说尤为重要,因为伊朗冬天下雪,夏天干旱。冬天山区的雪融化后,大面积的田地要依靠这些融化的雪水来浇灌。伊朗的降雨大部分集中在寒冷季节,但是,这对农民来说毫无意义。因为在冬季,农民鲜有农事活动,而且他们在这个季节并不会种植很多农作物。

暖季来临,降雨量减少,农民对于水源的需求量增加。冬天下的雪就派上了用场。雪融化后汇成水流,流向山下的田地。这些融化的雪还可以深入地表,流入数千年才形成的地下水库,这一点很重要。这是农民浇灌田地的珍贵宝物。

然而,如果我们不加以珍惜,这个宝物绝不是无限量使用的。例如,我经常去伊朗的文化中心伊斯法罕看望家人。那里的宰因达河(名字意为给予生命的一条河)不再给夏季带来生机。宰因达河分流后,部分水源流向伊斯法罕的东南部城市亚兹德,去浇灌沙漠中的稻田。

如大家所见,这并不符合可持续发展的要求。这里大量种植水稻、西瓜等水源密集型粮食的原因是伊朗政府想要实现农业自给自足。但是,伊朗不仅已经在农业上达到了自给自足,而且还有多余的粮食可出口国外。粮食产量虽然过剩,农业生产仍使用传统灌溉模式,政府仍在无规划地建造水坝。我们就可以想象到伊朗脆弱的生态系统根本承受不住这些所带来的代价[1]

严重的是,许多人没有意识到环境问题。更严峻的是,伊朗政府更不在乎环境问题。如今,环境问题虽然成了社会上老生常谈的话题,但是这个问题绝非寻常。事实上,一项报告指出,世界上有四分之一的人口面临水源危[2]然而,伊朗等其他国家似乎对此却置之不理,让环境自行解决人类造成的水源问题。

时间在流逝,我们必须竭尽全力拯救水源,拯救生命之源。在这场战役中,所有国家都要互帮互助,因为环境问题早晚都会导致整个地球遭到严重破坏。事实上,除了这颗蓝色星球,我们别无他选,无处可去。所以,我们为什么不从今天开始改正用水的坏习惯呢?


注释

[1] Madani, Kaveh, Amir AghaKouchak, Ali Mirchi. "Iran’s socio-economic drought: challenges of a water-bankrupt nation." Iranian studies 49, no. 6 (2016): 997-1016. http://amir.eng.uci.edu/publications/16_IR_Socio_Economic_Drought.pdf

[2] Sengupta, Somini Sengupta, Weiyi Cai. "A Quarter of Humanity Faces Looming Water Crises." The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/06/climate/world-water-stress.html.


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Mani Nouri

Mani Nouri

I'm a 26-years old, recent graduate from Iran, with a Master's degree from political science from Concordia, Canada. A writer by the day and reader at night. Let's talk about life!

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