La tecnica di Feynman per l’apprendimento

Come fisico, ammiro il fisico teorico americano Richard Feynman, che per studiare ha usato un metodo di apprendimento personale. Si tratta della cosiddetta ‘Tecnica di Feynman’, che consiste in quattro step ripetitivi, denominati studia, insegna, colma le lacune e semplifica.
Sri Lanka, Southern Asia

Story by Chathurıe Nıluka Nupearachchı. Translated by Daniela Pratesi
Published on September 17, 2022.

This story is also available in GB



Come fisico, ammiro il fisico teorico americano Richard Feynman, che per studiare ha usato un metodo di apprendimento personale. Si tratta della cosiddetta ‘Tecnica di Feynman’, che consiste in quattro step ripetitivi, denominati studia, insegna, colma le lacune e semplifica. Il suo metodo mi è stato molto utile quando ero studente di fisica. Spiegherò nel dettaglio come ho applicato quegli step, in modo che anche voi possiate usare la stessa tecnica se volete.

Il primo step è semplice – ho scelto un argomento di mio interesse e ho cominciato a studiarlo. In questa fase, è necessario suddividere l’argomento nei suoi componenti principali e cercare di comprendere a fondo il quadro generale. Questo è quello che ho fatto io nella sezione Meccanica della fisica classica. In questo caso, ho imparato i teoremi, i principi e le formule di base della Meccanica fino a quando non sono riuscito a insegnarli ad altri.

Nel secondo step, ho insegnato Meccanica all’università. Gli studenti mi hanno dato feedback e mi hanno fatto domande, aiutandomi a identificare le lacune delle mie conoscenze. Nei miei giorni da laureando, ho insegnato con grande piacere la Meccanica e altre sezioni della fisica agli studenti del terzo anno e ad amici della stessa età. Ho affinato i miei metodi di insegnamento quando sono diventato docente. Nel mio ruolo attuale, devo saper spiegare gli obiettivi della materia oltre alle regole e alle strategie di base per la comprensione dell’argomento. Se non ho studenti a cui insegnare, posso comunque far lezione a un pubblico immaginario.

Una volta entrato nel mondo dell’insegnamento, ho identificato le lacune delle mie conoscenze (perché non siamo perfetti). Il terzo step della Tecnica di Feynman prevede di concentrarsi sui propri punti deboli e trasformarli in punti di forza. Per prepararmi all’insegnamento della Meccanica, sono tornato ai fondamentali e ho studiato proprio quello che avevo ripetutamente trascurato. Così ho cominciato a comprendere a fondo le basi e le applicazioni della Meccanica.

L’ultimo step è la semplificazione. Cercare di spiegare la materia a studenti giovani con un vocabolario semplice è stato molto utile. E spiegare la Meccanica a uno studente che aveva pochissima conoscenza dell’argomento è stato impegnativo, ma necessario per il mio apprendimento. Grazie a questo step della Tecnica di Feynman, sono riuscito a padroneggiare le mie capacità comunicative in modo da impartire informazioni rilevanti sulla Meccanica a un pubblico target. Suddividere un’idea complessa nelle sue forme più semplici è più facile a dirsi che a farsi. Come disse Albert Einstein, “Se non lo sai spiegare a un bambino di sei anni, vuol dire che non lo sai”.

Dopo oltre dieci anni di esperienza nel settore dell’istruzione avanzata, provo tristezza per gli studenti universitari dello Sri Lanka che ho conosciuto nel corso della mia carriera. Quasi tutti gli studenti universitari che ho incontrato si sentono frustrati, irritati e preoccupati dalle incertezze del futuro, specialmente dopo la pandemia da Covid. Poiché il loro sistema di istruzione avanzata è tutto basato sugli esami, questi studenti sono costantemente sottoposti a pressione e competizione, continuamente subissati di compiti, esami, progetti di laboratorio e lezioni. Anche dopo la laurea, pochi degli studenti con cui mi capita di parlare sono soddisfatti del lavoro e delle sfide della vita che arrivano con la maturità.

Ho cominciato a usare il metodo di Feynman per divulgare la fisica tra gli studenti universitari a cui ho insegnato nel corso della mia carriera.

Continuo a chiedermi perché gli studenti universitari cingalesi non possano vivere in modo produttivo e divertirsi nello stesso tempo. Credo che a quasi nessuno di loro piaccia quel metodo di apprendimento, a cominciare dall’infanzia. E’ ora di cambiare la percezione degli studenti tramite nuove tecniche di apprendimento. Credo che il metodo di Feynman possa aiutarli a imparare in modo piacevole. E’ per questo che ancora lo uso ancora nel mio lavoro di fisico, a dimostrazione del mio slogan sull’insegnamento: “Con la fisica, la vita è più bella!”. Spero che tutti gli amanti della fisica siano d’accordo con me. In altre parole, sono risolutamente deciso ad avvicinare sempre più studenti al mondo della fisica, in modo costruttivo. Che Dio me la mandi buona!


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Chathurıe Nıluka Nupearachchı

Chathurıe Nıluka Nupearachchı

Dr. Chathurıe Nıluka Nupearachchı is a visiting lecturer, researcher, speaker, writer, STEM activist and education consultant with experience of over 12 years in the field of Higher Education.

In 2019, she obtained her PhD from The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). She is a Physics academic with research, consultancy and teaching components in equilibrium. Currently she is engaged in further research work of her PhD on rechargeable bio-batteries where she obtained a patent for OUSL with her supervisor Prof. Susira Perera. She acts as a visiting lecturer in Engineering Physics to Graduate Institute of Science and Management Campus which is affiliated to Massey University, New Zealand.

Her mission is to impart her passion for Physics to anybody in such a way that it contributes to the entire community without any barriers.

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