Participants of the Climate Forum in 2019, photo credit 350.org

Demander, ne pas imposer: comment le gouvernement devrait impliquer les communautés sur le sujet du changement climatique

Les communautés et les ONG locales ont une meilleure vision que le gouvernement sur les politiques environnementales. Les communautés devraient mener la transition énergétique en Ukraine.
Ukraine, Eastern Europe

Story by Illia Yeremenko. Translated by Emile Muller
Published on January 23, 2021.

This story is also available in GB it nl ru tr ua



L'année dernière, l'Ukraine a tenu deux élections, [1] et le nouveau gouvernement a changé la politique environnementale en Ukraine. Le Ministère de l’Energie et de l’Industrie Charbonnière et le Ministère de la Protection de l’Environnement ont fusionnés en une seule structure, baptisée « Ministère de l’Energie et de la Protection de l’Environnement ». Par la suite, le nouveau ministre de l'Energie et de l'Environnement a proposé un « Green New Deal » (Pacte Vert) pour l'Ukraine. [2] Même si je salue l’intention, mon expérience de travail avec les autorités locales me permet d’affirmer que pour en faire une véritable nouvelle donne cette politique devrait faire l’objet de beaucoup plus de discussions avec les parties prenantes à tous les niveaux, et en particulier les autorités locales, avant son adoption.

En 2010, j'ai commencé en tant qu'étudiant bénévole dans une ONG environnementale. Ma première tâche a été d'étudier des projets d'efficacité énergétique dans le district de Manevychi, une petite communauté du nord de l'Ukraine. En parlant aux employés de l'administration du district, j'ai remarqué à quel point ils étaient motivés. Ils voulaient améliorer le confort des citoyens en rendant les équipements publics plus efficaces. S'il est vrai que tous les fonctionnaires ne sont pas aussi motivés, tous ceux que j'ai rencontrés voulaient améliorer la vie de leurs concitoyens. Cela est particulièrement vrai dans les petites communautés, où les fonctionnaires sont porteurs des besoins de leurs amis et voisins. Par conséquent, je crois que les communautés locales, et non le gouvernement fédéral, devraient diriger cette «nouvelle transformation verte».

Les autorités nationales doivent en prendre conscience ! Dans mon travail à l'ONG, je vois les politiques nationales à travers le regard des fonctionnaires locaux. Le gouvernement élabore des plans au niveau national et ne demande pas l’avis des communautés, or ce manque de consultations entraîne des problèmes de mise en œuvre sur le terrain. Par exemple, les subventions publiques actuelles pour réduire le budget énergétique des familles à faible revenu sont conçues de manière à décourager l'efficacité énergétique. Pour avoir droit à une subvention, un ménage doit consommer une certaine quantité de gaz par an. Si un ménage en consomme moins, il perd sa subvention. Par conséquent, ces familles sont incitées à brûler plus de gaz. J'appelle cela une incitation contreproductive.

Un jour, dans un café, j'ai discuté avec des collègues à propos des moyens de réduire l'écart entre les politiques nationales et locales. Cette discussion a débouché sur le plus grand événement que j'ai jamais organisé: le forum « Climate ambitions of cities » [3], en 2019. Nous avons réuni des représentants de 50 autorités locales, dont les maires de sept villes. Lors du forum, 21 municipalités ont signé la déclaration du forum, qui appelle à une plus grande attention de la part de l’État aux développements locaux, en particulier dans les domaines de l’énergie verte et du climat. Il s'agissait de l'événement le plus important et le plus marquant jamais organisé par la société civile ukrainienne dans le domaine de l'énergie.

De nombreux participants ont exprimé leur soutien à l'idée d'une meilleure collaboration entre nivaux locaux et nationaux et à la « nouvelle transformation verte » en général.

J'étais très fier de ce que nous avons accompli.

En tant qu'organisations de la société civile, nous identifions et soutenons les autorités locales qui sont prêtes à s'engager dans des actions climatiques. Si le gouvernement suivait notre exemple, nous serions dans une nouvelle économie verte en un rien de temps.


[1] En savoir plus sur les élections: ici et ici.

[2] Voir la publication du Cabinet des ministres (uniquement en ukrainien). Pour en savoir plus, téléchargez le concept.

[3] Ambitions climatiques des villes.


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Illia Yeremenko

Illia Yeremenko

Illia (31) works for the NGO Ecoclub of Ukraine and has been chairing the Ukrainian Climate Network for the last four  years. Ecoclub is based in Rivne, western Ukraine, but its operations cover the whole country and, to a limited extent, engage other eastern European countries (Georgia, Moldova). Illia joined the organization as a student eight years ago. From the very beginning his work was closely related to local authorities. Illia designed and carried out educational and awareness-raising programs for local officials, and participated at countless round tables and meetings to help them in strategizing. He believes that local communities are the force that brings prosperity to any nation.

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