Participants of the Climate Forum in 2019, photo credit

Chiedere, non imporre: come il governo dovrebbe coinvolgere le comunità nel dibattito sul cambiamento climatico

Le comunità e le ONG locali ne sanno di più del governo sulle politiche ambientali. In Ucraina, le comunità dovrebbero guidare la transizione energetica.
Ukraine, Eastern Europe

Story by Illia Yeremenko. Translated by Stefania Ledda
Published on January 23, 2021.

This story is also available in GB ar fr kr nl ru tr ua

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Nel 2019 in Ucraina si tennero due elezioni [1] e il nuovo governo cambiò la politica ambientale del paese. Il Ministero dell’energia e dell’industria del carbone e quello della protezione ambientale sono stati poi fusi insieme in un unico ministero, chiamato “Ministero dell’Energia e della Protezione Ambientale.” In seguito, il nuovo ministro propose un “Green New Deal” per l’Ucraina. [2] Anche se ne apprezzo le intenzioni, sulla base delle mie esperienze professionali in collaborazione con le autorità locali credo che questa politica debba essere ulteriormente discussa con gli attori coinvolti a tutti i livelli per poterne fare un vero e nuovo accordo, soprattutto con le autorità locali, prima di essere adottata.

Nel 2010, quando ero uno studente, ho iniziato a fare volontariato presso una ONG che si occupava di ambiente. Il mio primo incarico è stato lo studio dei progetti per l’efficienza energetica del Distretto di Manevychi, una piccola città a nord dell’Ucraina. Quando parlavo con gli impiegati dell’amministrazione distrettuale, ho notato quanto fossero motivati. Intendevano migliorare il benessere dei cittadini rendendo le strutture pubbliche più efficienti. Anche se potrebbe sembrare che non tutti gli impiegati statali siano altrettanto motivati, tutti quelli che io ho incontrato vogliono rendere la vita dei loro concittadini migliore. Questo accade soprattutto nelle piccole comunità, dove gli impiegati rappresentano le necessità dei loro amici e dei loro vicini. Per cui, credo che debbano essere le comunità locali, e non il governo federale, a realizzare la “nuova trasformazione verde.”

Le autorità nazionali devono capirlo! Nel mio lavoro per la ONG, leggo le politiche nazionali dal punto di vista dei funzionari locali. Il governo realizza dei progetti a livello nazionale senza consultarsi con le comunità, e l’assenza di consultazioni causa problemi di implementazione dei piani sul territorio. Ad esempio, gli attuali sussidi statali per ridurre i costi dell’energia consumata dalle famiglie a basso reddito sono ideati in maniera tale da scoraggiare l’efficienza energetica. Per avere diritto ai sussidi, una famiglia dovrebbe consumare una certa quantità di gas all’anno. Se quella famiglia consuma di meno, perde il diritto al sussidio. Quindi, le persone devono utilizzare più gas naturale per ottenere tale diritto. Io lo considero un incentivo perverso.

Un giorno, al bar, parlavo con i miei colleghi di come ridurre il divario tra le politiche nazionali e quelle locali. Quella chiacchierata si è poi trasformata nel più grande evento che io abbia mai organizzato: il forum del 2019 chiamato “Climate ambitions of cities” (Ambizioni climatiche delle città). Abbiamo invitato i rappresentanti di 50 autorità locali, inclusi i sindaci di sette città. Durante l’incontro, 21 comuni hanno firmato la dichiarazione del forum, che chiede allo Stato di dedicare maggiore attenzione allo sviluppo locale, e in particolare ai temi dell’energia verde e del clima. Quello fu il più importante evento di impatto mai organizzato dalla società civile ucraina nel campo dell’energia.

Molti partecipanti hanno appoggiato l’idea di una migliore collaborazione tra rete locale e nazionale e di una “nuova trasformazione verde” in generale.

Ero molto fiero di ciò che eravamo riusciti a fare.

In quanto organizzazioni della società civile, collaboriamo e sosteniamo le autorità locali, che sono pronte a fare la loro parte a favore del clima. Se il governo seguisse il nostro esempio, avremmo una nuova economia verde in men che non si dica.

[1] Leggi di più sulle elezioni: qui e qui.

[2] Leggi la pubblicazione del Gabinetto dei Ministri (solo in ucraino). Per saperne di più, scarica il concept.

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Illia Yeremenko

Illia Yeremenko

Illia (31) works for the NGO Ecoclub of Ukraine and has been chairing the Ukrainian Climate Network for the last four  years. Ecoclub is based in Rivne, western Ukraine, but its operations cover the whole country and, to a limited extent, engage other eastern European countries (Georgia, Moldova). Illia joined the organization as a student eight years ago. From the very beginning his work was closely related to local authorities. Illia designed and carried out educational and awareness-raising programs for local officials, and participated at countless round tables and meetings to help them in strategizing. He believes that local communities are the force that brings prosperity to any nation.

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