Rafael Lodos

Hollandalıların Hoşgörüsü Azınlıkların Toplumda Kabul Görmesine Bir Engel mi?

Eşcinsel erkekler heteroseksüellerle neredeyse aynı yasal haklara sahip ve bu yüzden resmi olarak kabul görmekteler. Bununla birlikte, kişisel deneyimim bana, eşcinselliğin toplumsal olarak kabul edilmesinin çoğu zaman çeşitli koşullara bağlı olduğunu öğretti.

Story by Hugo Oms. Translated by by Büşra Çavundur
Netherlands, Western Europe
Published on Friday, 27. March 2020

Reading time: 2 minutes

This story is also available in GB de it kr nl



Bu hafta Hollanda ulusal gazetesi "NRC", Çin kökenli Hollanda vatandaşlarının koronavirüsün patlak vermesinden bu yana karşılaştığı ırkçı yorumları konu alan bir makale yayınladı. Anne babası Çinli, kendisi Hollandalı bir tıp öğrencisi olan Wendy Zeng, iki çocuğun otobüste ona “corona” diye bağırıp öksürdüğden bahsediyor. "Radyo 10" adlı radyo istasyonu da sözlerinde "suçlular kötü kokulu Çinliler" geçen bir karnaval şarkısı bestelerken Wageningen'deki bir daireye insan dışkısıyla "Çinlilere ölüm" yazıldı. Wendy, koronanın patlak vermesinden bu yana ulusal ölçekte yaşadığı ırkçılık karşısında şok olmuş ve Hollandalıların, hoşgörü anlayışlarının arkasına saklandığı sonucuna varmış. Wendy bu durumu şöyle açıklıyor: “Hollandalılar belli ki normdan farklı olan her şeyi ‘hoş görüyorlar’. Anlaşılan Çin halkı bu norma uymuyor. Bu, başlı başına bir problem. Hoşgörü, kabulün önünde bir engel oluşturuyor.” Bu sözler beni düşündürdü: Hollandalılar gerçekten hoşgörü anlayışlarının arkasına mı saklanıyor ve bu durum, azınlıkların toplumda tam anlamıyla kabul görülmesine bir engel oluşturuyor mu?

Hollandalı, eşcinsel bir erkek olarak kesinlikle Wendy’nin ifadesine katılıyorum. Eşcinsel erkekler heteroseksüellerle neredeyse aynı yasal haklara sahip ve bu yüzden resmi olarak kabul görmekteler. Bununla birlikte, kişisel deneyimim bana, eşcinselliğin toplumsal olarak kabul edilmesinin çoğu zaman çeşitli koşullara bağlı olduğunu öğretti. Hayatım boyunca bana sayısız kez, o kadar “abartılı” ya da “kadınsı” olmadığımdan “eşcinsel bir erkek için” ne kadar harika bir adam olduğum söylendi. Ayrıca, defalarca sokakta arkamdan isimler takıldı ve eski erkek arkadaşımla Rotterdam'daki bir gece kulübünden kovuldum çünkü kulüplerinde “öpüşen gayler” istemiyorlardı. Birbirimize sevgi göstermek istiyorsak eşcinsel barlara gitmemiz gerektiği söylendi. Bu nedenle, Lgbtqia+ topluluğunun kabul görmesi, bazı davranışsal normlara (toplumsal cinsiyet normlarına) bağlı gibi görünmektedir: Çok kadınsı veya abartılı olmadığınız ya da bunu alenen göstermediğiniz sürece eşcinsel olabilirsiniz. Bu anlamda, eşcinselliğim hoş görülüyor gibi görünüyor, ama kesinlikle her zaman kabul görmüyor.

Bu, Hollandalıların hoşgörüsünün Hollanda'daki azınlıkların toplumda tam anlamıyla kabul görülmesine bir engel oluşturduğu anlamına mı geliyor? Bence kesinlikle öyle. Wendy'nin de söylediği gibi, “hoşgörü” kelimesi bir grubun belirli bir normdan olumsuz yönde sapmasına işaret eder. Bu nedenle, hoşgörü kavramı bu farklılıklara vurgu yapar. Beni yanlış anlamayın: Hollanda, Hollanda'yı kendi evleri olarak gören çok çeşitli insanlardan oluşuyor. Fakat bu farklı grupların birlikte mi yoksa yan yana mı yaşadıklarını merak ediyorum. Çok kültürlü toplumumuz ve Hollandalı azınlıkların yasal olarak korunmasından dolayı, azınlıkların “tamamen” özgürleştiği varsayılmaktadır. Azınlıkların yasal eşitliği ve insanların muazzam çeşitliliğinden, onları “hoş görmek” yerine sosyal farklılıklarımız arasına köprüler kurma ve onları kucaklama gerekliliğini gözden kaçırmış olabiliriz. Bu nedenle, hoşgörüye değil de kabullenmeye odaklanmalıyız. Çünkü Wendy gibi insanlar ayrımcı yorumlara maruz kalmaya devam ettikleri sürece, Hollanda azınlıklarının tam anlamıyla özgürleşmesi uzak bir ihtimal gibi görünüyor.


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Hugo Oms

Hugo Oms

I’m Hugo, a Dutch 25-year old student who is in the final phases of his study ‘International Development Studies’ in Wageningen. I’m about to start my internship at the green left political party in the Hague which I’m really excited about! In my spare time I like to do sports (crossfit and running), to meet and go out with friends, and I love to travel.

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